Pyrolysis is a chemical decomposition process generated by the intervention of thermal energy. It is topical in numerous and important applications especially in the petrochemical field.

Energetic process

From the energetic standpoint, pyrolysis is a completely endothermic process; conducted in the absence of air and therefore in a hermetic environment, it intervenes on organic matter, decomposing it. In fact, the particular operating conditions make thermo-dynamically unstable organic macromolecules which therefore split into shorter molecules and elemental carbon.



Its application to waste disposal started relatively recently (1970s) with the adaptation of particular technologies already tested with other materials. Pyrolysis modifies the waste by breaking down the complex molecules that form gums, plastics, starches, cellulosic compounds and other organic components, which are transformed into structurally simpler molecules.

advantages of pyrolysis

The pyrolysis, that is the heat treatment in the absence of oxygen or air represents the most innovative technological proposal among those presented in the treatment sector of biomasses in general.

The application of pyrolysis has obvious advantages resulting from the particular type of process:

  • High rate of biomass conversion into

  • It does not yield dioxins, PM10, polycyclic aromatic¬† hydrocarbons, furans or benzofurans¬†

  • It produces coal out of biomass, highly sought-after in agriculture

  • It can convert a wide range of dry and wet materials, such as solid urban waste or adjacent materials, in sewage sludge

  • It allows for the construction of a small/ medium sized plant easily usable in urban context enabling the exploitation of thermal energy further used for cooling or district heating¬†

  • It has a low impact on the environment

  • It does not produce residues



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